Comments for Section 3 Flowchart   
Steps 13 to 15 (of 15)              



Step 13

Following Method Statement


1. Prepare QA samples according to specification and send to test facility. If the samples fail to comply with the specification, then the contractor must present methods of remediation to the Engineer / Client Representative
2. Bonding Record – continuous QC.


Application of reinforcement system

Step 13 defines the details of application of the adhesive (assuming a pre-fabricated reinforcement) and reinforcement. See Step 11 for relevant hold points.

The adhesive Material Supplier should provide application details including acceptable environmental conditions for application, details of the mixing procedure and relevant working times, thickness, curing time and general application details including associated QC plan.

Specific issues relating to the working characteristics of the adhesive are presented in the adhesive classification scheme.

The reinforcement Material Supplier should provide application details including acceptable environmental conditions for application, details of the mixing procedure and relevant working times, fibre lay up, stacking sequence, curing time and general application details including associated QC plan (if on-site manufacture).

During application of either the adhesive or reinforcement, QA samples should be prepared for off-site testing or QA tests (including test method, number of samples, sample dimensions) should be performed as per the Specification (Step 8). Note that the same tests should also be performed on pre-manufactured reinforcements in the factory prior to shipment.

The datum values for all QA parameters should be set in the Specification along with the acceptance criteria. All QA tests are relative tests with comparison of the results with the defined datum values. Ideally all QA tests should be performed on site, but realistically this is impractical. For some QA tests, samples will have to be made on-site and then sent off-site for analysis.

The frequency of QA testing should be defined with the Specification. For adhesives and laminating resins, one sequence of tests per 50 kg is recommended. For reinforcements (on-site lamination) samples should be prepared after each 50 kg of resin used. The QA test methods for adhesives and for composite reinforcement are provided in the section on QC Protocols and Acceptance.

Step 14


Following Method Statement and Specification

Checks for faults listed within the specification. If outside the acceptable limits, then the Contactor is to present methods of remediation to the Engineer / Client Representative.

Final QA checks, inspection and approval

Step 14 involves final checking of the QA tests and inspection of the installed reinforcement.

Final checks includes:

• Inspection of the installed reinforcement
• Any other discrepancy with the Specification.

Acceptable defects for the composite reinforcement, adhesive and substrate are given in the table below.

Repair Section
Allowable limits
Substrate prior to repair application Changes in geometry Prepared area to be free of sharp changes in geometry (all radii >5 mm (0.2 inch)), or sharp geometry to be faired-in
Surface preparation In accordance with Specification
Substrate temperature In accordance with Specification
Interface Delamination Tap test may indicate presence of de-bonding
None at ends of reinforcement
Composite Fibre orientation In accordance with Specification
reinforcement Un-impregnated/dry fibre None
Exposed cut edges/ fibres None
Foreign matter None
Positioning of reinforcement In accordance with Specification
Does not extend beyond prepared surface
Outer resin rich layer (for on-site laminated composite plates)      Cracks None (check adhesive fillets)
Foreign matter, blisters and pits Maximum 10 mm (0.5 inches) in width, 2.5 mm (0.1 inch) in height
Wrinkles No step changes in thickness greater than 2.5 mm (0.1 inch) in height
Pin holes None deeper than surface resin rich layer
Resin colour Uniform
Dry spots None

Defect types and acceptable limits

Documentation requirements

Material and application records

- resin type/product ID and batch numbers
- reinforcement type/product ID and batch numbers
- lay-up stacking sequence
- surface preparation
- cure period

QC records

- repair reference
- site conditions, temperature and humidity
- Contractor staff
- visual inspection
- thickness
- dimensions
- QA test results for both adhesive and reinforcement (including test methods)

Documentation requirements

If the inspection reveals any unacceptable defects or if there are any other discrepancies with the Specification then the Contractor should present a plan of remediation works to the Client Representative, see Step 15.


Step 15


Remedial works


Remedial works may be required if the appropriate checks during either Step 13 (Application of the reinforcement system) or Step14 (Final QA checks, inspection and approval) are not passed.

The remedial work plan should be prepared by the Contractor for the Client Representative approval.

For minor remedial works, approval to continue to Steps 13 or 14, respectively, may be given.

However, for major remedial works a re-design may be required with a return to Step 6. From the re-design a reduced factor of safety (FOS) will result. If this reduced FOS is acceptable then approval to continue to Steps 13 or 14 may be given. If the reduced FOS is unacceptable then further significant remedial works may be required that could include a complete rebuild of the reinforcement.

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